Transaction Level Modelling Methodology

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A sequence item is an object that models the information being transmitted between two components sometimes it can also be called a transaction.

Transaction Level Modelling Methodology – Frank Ghenassia [PDF] (2005)

A sequence can be thought of a defined pattern of sequence items that can be send to the driver for injecting into the design. The pattern of sequence items is defined by how the body method is implemented in sequence. For Example: Extending above example, we can define a sequence of 10 transactions of reads to incremental memory addresses. In this case, the body method will be implemented to generate sequence items 10 times, and send them to driver while say incrementing or randomizing address before next item.

A sequence item is nothing but a transaction that groups some information together and also adds some other information like: sequence id id of sequence which generates this item , and transaction id the id for this item , etc. What is the difference between copy , clone , and create method in a component class? Most of the DUTs have multiple logical interfaces and an Agent is used to group all: driver, sequencer, monitor, and other components, operating at that specific interface. Following diagram shows usually how a group of components are organized as agent.

As explained in previous question, an agent is a collection of components that are grouped based on a logical interface to the DUT. An agent normally has a driver and a sequencer to drive stimulus to the DUT on the interface on which it operates. It also has a monitor and an analysis component like a scoreboard or a coverage collector to analyze activity on that interface.


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In addition, it can also have a configuration object that configures the agent and its components. This means, the components like driver and sequencer would be connected and there would be a sequence running on it to generate activity. This means, in a passive agent the driver and sequencer will not be created.


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Same agent can be configured PASSIVE as we move from block level to chip level verification environment in which no stimulus generation is needed, but we still can use same for monitoring activity in terms of debug or coverage. The build phase of the agent should then have the code as below to selectively construct driver and sequencer.

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A Driver is a component that converts a transaction or sequence item into a set of pin level toggling based on the signal interface protocol. A Sequencer is a component that routes sequence items from a sequence to a driver and routes responses back from driver to sequence.

Transaction-Level Modelling and Debug of SoCs

The sequencer also takes care of. These components are needed as in a TLM methodology like UVM, stimulus generation is abstracted in terms of transactions and the sequencer and driver are the components that route them and translate them to actual toggling of pins. It also sends these transactions to analysis components through an analysis port. A scoreboard is an analysis component that checks if the DUT is behaving correctly. UVM scoreboards use analysis transactions from the monitors implemented inside agents.

Following diagram illustrates this protocol handshake between sequencer and driver which is the most commonly used handshake to transfer requests and responses between sequence and driver.


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Sometimes, there would also be need for a separate response port if the response from driver to sequence contains more information than what could be encapsulated in the request class. They are also allowed to bypass the transaction-based block-to-block interface entirely and have direct access to areas of memory within a target function, again to accelerate simulation. Approximately timed models add just enough timing information to make the model useful for architectural exploration and performance analysis.

The models run in lockstep with the master simulation clock. The interoperability that is at the heart of TLM 2. The data passing over the resultant link is carried in the generic payload format, which defines standard slots for the kinds of information e. The development of TLM 2. However, tools have been developed that support assisted high-level synthesis and equivalence checking between SystemC models and RTL implementations. What does it do and why?

The coding styles have different purposes.

Bridging the Gap

Where can I use it? Virtual platform models created using TLM 2. In the database design phases, data are represented using a certain data model. The data model is a collection of concepts or notations for describing data, data relationships, data semantics and data constraints. Most data models also include a set of basic operations for manipulating data in the database. In this section we will look at the database design process in terms of specificity. Just as any design starts at a high level and proceeds to an ever-increasing level of detail, so does database design.

The next step is to get an architect to design the home from a more structured perspective. This level gets more detailed with respect to actual room sizes, how the home will be wired, where the plumbing fixtures will be placed, etc.

The last step is to hire a contractor to build the home. The database design is very much like that. It starts with users identifying the business rules; then the database designers and analysts create the database design; and then the database administrator implements the design using a DBMS. These internal models:. In a pictorial view, you can see how the different models work together.

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Typically a database is an enterprise system that serves the needs of multiple departments. Therefore, one user view will differ from another.

RTL vs TLM and AT vs LT in SystemC TLM-2.0

The external model requires that the designer subdivide a set of requirements and constraints into functional modules that can be examined within the framework of their external models e. As a data designer, you need to understand all the data so that you can build an enterprise-wide database. Based on the needs of various departments, the conceptual model is the first model created. At this stage, the conceptual model is independent of both software and hardware.